Karen Kellogg, Caroline Hobbs, A Case Study of Small Hydropower, The Solutions Journal, Volume 7, Issue 1, February 2016, Pages 46-54 (https://www.thesolutionsjournal.com/article/a-case-study-of-small-hydropower/) Abstract: While climate systems are incredibly complex, the causes of contemporary climate change and many of the potential impacts are now well understood. The atmospheric concentrations of several greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) have increased to unprecedented levels, in at least the past 800,000 years, and carbon dioxide levels are now hovering around 400 ppm, a concentration beyond the 350 ppm concentration now widely recognized as a target level to preserve our social systems. As a result, it is unequivocal that there is a warming of the climate system, including the atmosphere and oceans, and it is consensus that human influence has been the dominant cause of warming since the mid-20th century. We understand, with varying degrees of certainty, that this warming has and will continue to cause snow and ice melt, sea level rise, ocean acidification, loss of permafrost, increased severity of storm events, significant changes in precipitation patterns, … Topics: Climate Change; Energy; Sustainability