John J. Berger, The ‘Climate-Proofing’ of Rotterdam, The Solutions Journal, Volume 9, Issue 1, January 2018, ( Abstract: Rotterdam, The Netherlands – How can a major seaport city thriftily bolster its defences against a growing onslaught of costly climate risks while reaping economic benefits and making itself more livable? Rotterdam's approach has been to start with a comprehensive risk-and-damage  assessment of long-term climate threats and then adopt a broad systems approach to improving its resiliency. Adaptation measures are integrated into infrastructure projects and efforts are made to engage the business community. Along the way, the city has endeavoured to seize innovative, cost-effective opportunities to make itself more attractive, more prosperous, and more sustainable, even as it has wavered on its climate mitigation agenda. This has helped make the city's pragmatic climate adaptation program more popular and has burnished the city's international image. Climate risks Accessibility to the sea and navigable inland waterways are largely responsible for Rotterdam’s prosperity, … Topics: Climate Change; Energy; Resilience; Urbanization