John Dymond, Anne-Gaelle E. Ausseil, Duane A. Peltzer, Alexander Herzig, Conditions and Trends of Ecosystem Services in New Zealand—a Synopsis, The Solutions Journal, Volume 5, Issue 6, November 2014, Pages 38-45 (https://www.thesolutionsjournal.com/article/conditions-and-trends-of-ecosystem-services-in-new-zealand-a-synopsis/) Abstract: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) identified many services provided to humans by nature, termed ecosystem services (ES),1 and demonstrated that these services make major contributions to improving human well-being. More recently, the Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) study advocated that ecosystem services should be measured and valued to facilitate their inclusion into decisions.2 The importance of this inclusion was first articulated by Costanza et al., who valued global ecosystem services at about 30 trillion dollars per year, that is, approximately twice the global Gross Domestic Product (GDP).3 Life is divided into six kingdoms. In order of increasing complexity, these are bacteria, protozoa, chromista, fungi, plants, and animals.4 New Zealand is a unique country in terms of biodiversity with a very high level of endemicity, that is, the proportion of unique species found nowhere else.5 For example, 81 percent of seed plants, 99 percent of the 5,000 … Topics: Conservation; Ecosystem Services