Colleen Maney, From Commutes to Corals: Reincarnating New York’s Subway Cars, The Solutions Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, March 2015, Pages 6 (https://www.thesolutionsjournal.com/article/from-commutes-to-corals-reincarnating-new-yorks-subway-cars/) Abstract: The secret is out: New York City has been quietly dumping its retired and decrepit subway cars into the ocean for years. But before you accuse the city of gross environmental crimes and large-scale pollution, consider that their unusual method of disposing of the cars actually serves a beneficial ecological purpose, but one not apparent to the eye. Once settled on the ocean floor, the sunken subway cars are assimilated into the local ecosystem. The bare metal surfaces attract corals, eventually acting as frames and foundations for new coral reefs. Over time, the cars are overtaken by coral growth, creating artificial but substantial reefs. After ten years, the structures are nearly unrecognizable as the cars that once carried millions of New Yorkers, having traded crowds of commuters for schools of fish, with colorful corals bursting forth from the metal seats and hand rails. At a time when coral reef ecosystems have been greatly threatened and diminished by human activity, … Topics: Oceans; Sustainability