John Richardson, Elizabeth Ong, The Improbable Resilience of Singapore, The Solutions Journal, Volume 3, Issue 5, September 2012, Pages 63-71 (https://www.thesolutionsjournal.com/article/the-improbable-resilience-of-singapore/) Abstract: The Challenge: Global-Scale Overshoot and Collapse It was in the early 1970s that the profile of a possible global-scale overshoot and collapse was first highlighted in a publication, The Limits to Growth,1 based on a computer simulation model. “Overshoot” referred to exponentially growing trends in population, resource consumption, and waste generation that would overwhelm planet Earth’s carrying capacity. “Collapse” referred to a possible consequence of overshoot: a catastrophic decline in resource availability, industrial output, food production, population, and, consequently, the quality of human life. This paper argues that the challenges of overshoot and collapse are likely to first manifest themselves in cities. It points to Singapore as an example of a city that faced challenges analogous to overshoot and collapse. Responding to these challenges, Singapore’s leaders crafted solutions that overcame them and produced a successful and sustainable development … Topics: Resilience; Sustainability; Urbanization