Emmanuelle is an environmental economist and has been working with ELD Initiative since 2011. She recently joined the University of Brest as a lecturer in economics. She also works with the Centre for Development, Environment and Policy, SOAS, University of London. She originally trained as an agronomist before becoming an economist. Emma holds a MSc in Applied Environmental Economics from Imperial College London and a PhD in Agri-Environmental Economics from the University of Kent. She has worked in France, the United Kingdom, Mexico, and Canada on a range of environment and natural resource management problems.

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The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment defines ecosystem services as the benefits people obtain from ecosystems.1 They are the multiple commodities that are supplied by ecosystems and constitute the natural processes by which nature sustains human life.2 They not only provide direct satisfaction such as clean water to humans but also contribute …

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South Africa is a commodity-based economy, with the mining sector not only a cornerstone of the economy but the very foundation on which the nation was built. Directly and indirectly, mining nominally contributed to 17 percent of the country’s gross domestic product in 2012.1   Both deep-level and open cast mining are used in South …

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