Norton Ribeiro de Freitas Jr., an economist of the state government of São Paulo Environmental Sanitation and Technology Company in Brazil, joined the Gund Institute in January 2011 to pursue interdisciplinary work in ecological economics at the University of Vermont. His interests include indicators of ecological change, with a particular emphasis on the characteristics of ecosystem services provided by forests.

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Ecosystem services are conventionally defined as the human benefits provided by natural ecosystems and include the capacity of those systems to reproduce or replenish themselves. It is useful, however, to distinguish between two types of flows from nature that benefit humans: ecosystem services and throughput.1,2 Ecosystems generate services …

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